2020年主汛期长江流域短时强降水时空分布特征
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国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1507201)


Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of short-duration heavy rainfall in the Yangtze River Basin during the main flood season of 2020
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    摘要:

    长江流域(Yangtze River Basin,YZRB)是中国降水集中地。在气候变暖背景下,短时强降水(Short-Duration Heavy Rainfall,SDHR)有增加趋势。2020年主汛期(6—8月)YZRB出现多轮强降水,发生了新中国成立以来仅次于1954年、1998年的流域性大洪水。本文利用中国气象局国家气象信息中心逐小时降水资料,分析了长江上游(YR-A)、长江中游(YR-B)和长江下游(YR-C)三个区域SDHR时空分布以及不同类型短时强降水事件(Short-Duration Heavy Rainfall Event,SDHRE)的统计特征。得到结论如下:1)受地形影响,YZRB山区降水频次增加、降水强度增强,且地形作用会增加山区SDHR的频次,进而增强山区SDHR的降水量;YZRB降水强度的空间分布依赖于SDHR降水量的空间分布。2)YZRB三个区域SDHR降水量和频次的日变化均表现为双峰型,双峰时间在YZRB区域自西向东有从夜间移向白天的趋势,这与对流活动日变化的区域差异有关;SDHR的降水量和频次具有相似的日变化,说明SDHR的降水量主要源自其降水频次的贡献。3)在三种类型SDHRE中,增长型频次最高(约62.6%),突发型频次次之(约26.9%),而持续型频次最少(约10.5%);突发型SDHRE的高发降水量最小(约30 mm),持续型SDHRE的高发降水量最大(约90 mm),而增长型SDHRE的高发降水量介于两者之间(40~60 mm)。4)不同类型SDHRE降水量的空间分布主要依赖于SDHRE频次的空间分布,增长型SDHRE因频次高于突发型和持续型,其降水量也高于后两种类型,但大别山地区因其地形作用成为持续型SDHRE的高发区,而突发型SDHRE更易在局地形成降水强度高值。

    Abstract:

    The Yangtze River Basin(YZRB) has the highest concentration of precipitation in China.Against the background of climate warming, short-duration heavy rainfall (SDHR) tends to increase.In the main flood season (June, July and August) of 2020, there were several rounds of heavy precipitation in the YZRB, and the basin flood level was lower than only two years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, namely 1954 and 1998.Based on the hourly precipitation data collected by the National Meteorological Information Center of China Meteorological Administration, this study analyzes the temporal and spatial distributions of SDHR and statistical characteristics of different type short-duration heavy rainfall events (SDHREs) in the upper YZRB (YR-A), middle YZRB (YR-B) and lower YZRB (YR-C).The results show the following:1) Due to the influence of terrain, the frequency and intensity of precipitation in the YZRB mountainous areas increase, while the terrain effect increases the frequency of SDHR in the mountainous areas, thereby enhancing the precipitation amount of SDHR in these areas.In addition, the spatial distribution of precipitation intensity in the YZRB depends on the spatial distribution of precipitation amount of SDHR.2) The diurnal variations of both precipitation amount and frequency of SDHR in the YR-A, YR-B and YR-C areas show a bimodal pattern, and the bimodal time tends to shift from night to day from west to east in the YZRB, which is related to the regional difference of diurnal variation of convective activity.Moreover, the precipitation amount and frequency of SDHR exhibit similar diurnal variations, indicating that the precipitation amount of SDHR mainly originates from the contribution of its precipitation frequency.3) Among the three types of SDHRE, the frequency of the growth type is the highest (~62.6%), followed by the burst type (~26.9%), with that of the continuous type being the lowest (~10.5%).However, the high incidence precipitation amount of the burst-type SDHRE is the smallest (~30 mm), while that of the continuous-type SDHRE is the largest (~90 mm), and the high incidence precipitation amount of the growth-type SDHRE is between the two (40—60 mm).4) The spatial distribution of precipitation amount of different types of SDHREs mainly depends on the spatial distribution of their precipitation frequency.Since the precipitation frequency of the growth-type SDHRE is generally higher than those of the burst-type and continuous-type SDHREs, its precipitation amount is also greater than those of the latter two types.Note that the Dabie Mountain area is a high incidence area of the continuous-type SDHRE, due to its terrain effect, while the burst-type SDHRE is more likely to form high precipitation intensity locally.

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唐永兰,徐桂荣,万蓉.2022.2020年主汛期长江流域短时强降水时空分布特征【J】大气科学学报.45.2:212.224

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  • 收稿日期:2021-11-24
  • 最后修改日期:2022-02-22
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-05-05
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