地表类型影响区域水循环的模拟试验
投稿时间:2004-09-01  修订日期:2005-03-18  点此下载全文
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房贞丽 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorgical Disaster, NUIST, Nanjing 210044, China 
周锁铨 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorgical Disaster, NUIST, Nanjing 210044, China 
康娜 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorgical Disaster, NUIST, Nanjing 210044, China 
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(2001CB309404);海外杰出青年合作项目(40128001/D05);国家自然科学基金资助项目(49375248)
中文摘要:利用1992—2001年10 a逐日降水、气温、湿度、风速和气压资料,使用气候要素逐步插值方法,修改VIC模式同一栅格中多种覆盖类型蒸发的计算方法,采用遥感等4种地表覆盖类型,考虑植被分布不均匀性,计算各种植被类型对地表水循环的贡献,结果表明:1)均匀落叶阔叶林地表年平均流量误差为-24.82%,均匀农田地表年平均流量误差为21.82%,《中国资源与环境数据库(1:400万)》(REDC)地表年平均流量误差为-14.32%,遥感地表的年平均流量误差最小,为1.43%,与实测吻合。2)采用均匀落叶阔叶林地表类型计算的蒸散,与降水年平均分布一致,与地形无关;均匀农田地表类型计算的蒸散,受地形影响明显;REDC地表类型计算的蒸散空间分布与地表植被类型有较好的对应关系。3)VIC-3L具有描述各类地表类型的能力,能够模拟出同一网格单元中多种植被类型对地表蒸散、径流等的作用,计算得到的蒸散、蒸发、径流等地表水平衡分量和空间分布显示出与均匀地表类型结果明显的不同。4)应用遥感地表覆盖类型,计算的地面蒸散、径流、土壤湿度和积雪升华的空间分布表明,地面蒸散受植被类型的影响是显著的。
中文关键词:水循环  地表类型  模拟
 
Simulation of the Landcover Type Influencing on Regional Hydrological Cycle
Abstract:Using the three-layer variable infiltration capacity(VIC-3L) hydrological model and the successive interpolation approach(SIA) of climate factors,we study the effect of different landcover types on the surface hydrological cycle.Daily climate data from 1992 to 2001 and remotely sensed leaf area index(LAI) are used in the model.The model is applied to a Baohe River basin,a subbaisn of the Yangtze River basin,China,with a area of 2 500 km22.The vegetation cover types are mostly mixed forests,which covers 85% fraction of the Baohe River basin.Comparison of the simulation results with observed discharge data suggests that:1) Daily discharges over the period of 1992—2001 simulated with inputs of remotely sensed land cover data and LAI data can generally follow observed discharge variations,and the modeled annual total discharge agrees with observations with a mean difference of 1.4%.The use of remote sensing images also makes modeled spatial distributions of evapotranspiration physically meaningful.2) The relative computing error(RCE) of the annual average discharge is-24.8% when the homogeneous broadleaf deciduous forestry cover is assumed for the watershed.The error is 21.8% when a homogeneous cropland cover is assumed and-14.32 when a REDC(the resource and environment database of China) land cover map is used.The error is reduced to 1.4% when the remotely sensed land cover at 1 000 m×1 000 m resolution is used.
keywords:hydrological cycle  landcover type  simulation
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