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  • 1  APPLICATION OF WAVELET TRANSFORMATION TO ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TIME SCALE CLIMATE CHANGE
    Deng Ziwang You Weihong Lin Zhengshan
    1997, 20(4):505-510.
    [Abstract](6344) [HTML](0) [PDF 344.65 K](4106)
    Abstract:
    Mexican Hat-form wavelet transformation is used to investigate the structures of bihemispheric and global climate change at multi-time scales and the points of abrupt change. The results suggest that climate change exhibits different cold-warm structures and abrupt points at these scales, displaying remarkable difference between the hemispheres, indicating that wavelet transformation is a powerful tool in the study of climate change.
    2  Major Achievements in Meteorology in Ancient China
    王鹏飞
    1978, 1(0):141-151.
    [Abstract](6192) [HTML](0) [PDF 889.58 K](3070)
    Abstract:
    甲骨文是汉字最早期的形态之一。远在三千年前,我国殷代甲骨文中,已有有关气象的记载。例如已有风、云、虹、雨、雪、雨夹雪、霾、霞、龙卷、雷暴、雷雨、雹暴等字①,为记载天气实况提供了可能。
    3  The impact of the Himalayan-Tibet Plateau on the monsoon region
    C.S.拉梅奇
    1978, 1(0):152-155.
    [Abstract](6081) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.36 K](2906)
    Abstract:
    图1 揭示了印度西北部和中国西部之间的巨大云量梯度。此种分布全年盛行,且在雨量上也反映出来。
    4  CMIP5 projected changes in mean and extreme climate in the Belt and Road region
    ZHOU Botao XU Ying HAN Zhenyu SHI Ying WU Jia LI Rouke
    2020, 43(1):255-264. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20191125009
    [Abstract](6009) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.46 M](3117)
    Abstract:
    In this study,based on the simulation results from 18 CMIP5 models,the future changes of the mean and extreme climate in the Belt and Road under three representative concentration pathways(RCP2.6,RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are projected.The results show that the annual temperature in the Belt and Road would continue to rise in the future as a response to the continuous emission of greenhouse gases,and in addition the rising amplitude tends to increase with the enhancement of greenhouse gas emission.Under the high emission (RCP8.5) scenario,the increase of annual temperature would generally exceed 5℃ by the end of the 21st century,with the greatest warming occurring in West Asia and North Asia,and the smallest in South Asia and Southeast Asia.The annual precipitation is projected to increase over most of the region,particularly in West Asia and North Asia,where the projected increases under the RCP2.6 scenario is greater than that under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by the middle of the 21st century,while the case is reversed with larger increase in the RCP8.5 scenario than in the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios by the end of the 21st century.Extreme temperature is also projected to increase in the future,with the warming amplitude in the high latitudes being greater than in the low latitudes,and that under the high emission scenario greater than under the low emission scenario.Moreover,the increase in the extreme low temperature is greater than that of the extreme high temperature over the high latitudes.The number of consecutive dry days is projected to decrease in North Asia and East Asia,while increasing in other regions.The projected extreme precipitation tends to intensify in the Belt and Road,and the greatest intensification appears in South Asia,Southeast Asia and East Asia.
    5  Discussion on calculation method of flowering date meeting of hybrid rice parents
    江苏省杂交稻气象问题研究协作组
    1978, 1(0):134-140.
    [Abstract](5940) [HTML](0) [PDF 505.77 K](2853)
    Abstract:
    杂交稻亲本花期是否相遇良好,是制种产量高低的关键之一。在生产上虽有一系列调整花期的措施,如肥、水的促控,拔苞、切根,割叶、喷九二○等,也确有一定的效果,但是,这总是因为花期相遇不好,不得已而采用的办法。花期不遇的原因很多,但制种组合的亲本确定之后,在正常农业技术条件下,最根本的一条是没有根据当年的天气特点,按播种的季节不同,合理地安排父母本的播种差期,致使父母本不能同期开花。
    6  Quality assessment of hourly merged precipitation product over China
    SHEN Yan PAN Yang YU Jing-jing ZHAO Ping ZHOU Zi-jiang
    2013, 36(1):37-46.
    [Abstract](4915) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.97 M](18847)
    Abstract:
    Based on the hourly precipitation observed by automatic weather stations(AWS) in China and retrieved from CMORPH(CPC MORPHing technique) satellite data,the merged precipitation product at hourly/0.1°lat/0.1°lon temporal-spatial resolution in China is developed through the two-step merging algorithm of PDF(probability density function) and OI(optimal interpolation).In this paper,the quality of merged precipitation product is assessed from the points of temporal-spatial characteristics of error,accuracy at different precipitation rates and cumulative times,merging effect at three station network densities and monitoring capability of the heavy rainfall.Results indicate that:1)The merged precipitation product effectively uses the advantages of AWS observations and satellite product of CMORPH,so it is more reasonable both at the precipitation amount and spatial distribution;2)The regional mean bias and root-mean-square error of the merged precipitation product are decreased remarkably,and they have a little change with time;3)The relative bias of merged precipitation product is -1.675%,less than 15% and about 30% for the medium(1.0—2.5 mm/h),medium to large(1.0—8.0 mm/h) and heavy rainfall(≥8.0 mm/h),respectively,and the product quality is improved further with the cumulative time increases.The merged precipitation product can capture the precipitation process very well and have a definite advantage in the quantitatively rainfall monitoring.
    7  Analysis and comparison of four kinds of circulation indices of Aleutian Low
    SUN Xiaojuan WANG Panxing ZHI Hai GUO Dong
    2011, 34(1):74-84.
    [Abstract](4437) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.18 M](6343)
    Abstract:
    The timefrequency characteristics of four intensity indices Ii(i=1,4〖TX-〗)and two center position indices (〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗i,〖WTBX〗φ〖WTB1〗i;i=3,4〖TX-〗)of the Aleutian low(AL) proposed by different scholars since the 1990s are analyzed and compared in this paper,and their correlation relationships with the sea surface temperature(SST) of the Pacific Ocean,air temperature and precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere during the same period are investigated.The results show that evolutionary features of Ii(i=2,4〖TX-〗) are mostly similar:the AL was weaker before the mid1970s,then stronger,and becomes weaker again in recent years;larger differences existed between I1 and Ii(i=2,4〖TX-〗) probably because I1 is defined according to the 5month mean pressure field.The geographic distributive range of the appearance of the center position of the AL determined by (〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c3,〖WTBX〗φ〖WTB1〗c3) is larger than that by (〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c4,〖WTBX〗φ〖WTB1〗c4),which might be caused by the differences in the length of average time period and the different definitions of the center position between them;and it is about 5yr earlier for 〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c4 to turn from the negative position anomaly phase to the positive one than the time when 〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c3 did,and the tuning time of 〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c4 is also more consistent with the transition time of intensity indices Ii(i=2,4〖TX-〗).In strong EI Ni〖AKn~D〗o events,the AL strengthened with its center shifting eastward;and vice versa in La Ni〖AKn~D〗a events.In this respect,intensity indices I2 and I4 and position indices〖WTBX〗 λ〖WTB1〗c4 and 〖WTBX〗λ〖WTB1〗c3 are comparatively better.When the AL was stronger (〖WTBX〗〖AKI~〗′〖WTB1〗i<0) and lay eastward of its normal position (〖WTBX〗〖AKλ~〗〖WTB1〗′ci>0),it was colder and drier in the midlatitude North Pacific region and the southern area of North America,but warmer and wetter in the northeast area of North Pacific,and vice versa.
    8  The differences in characteristics and applicability among three types of Rossby wave activity flux in atmospheric dynamics
    SHI Chunhua JIN Xing LIU Renqiang
    2017, 40(6):850-855. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20161023012
    [Abstract](3913) [HTML](0) [PDF 17.25 M](3315)
    Abstract:
    Plumb wave activity flux,T-N wave activity flux and local E-P wave activity flux are widely used to analyze the propagation of Rossby wave in atmospheric dynamics.The differences in characteristics and applicability among three types of Rossby wave activity fluxes are discussed in a case study of a cold wave in January 2016.Plumb wave activity flux with strong zonal component and weak meridional component is suitable for the analysis of Rossby waves with small amplitude in the zonally symmetric westerly.T-N wave activity flux with improved meridional component based on Plumb wave activity flux is appropriate for analyzing Rossby waves in the zonally asymmetric westerly.T-N wave activity flux derived on the multi-year average climatic field of current month can more successfully indicate wave propagation anomaly in current season.Local E-P wave activity flux can illustrate the modulating effect of transient waves on background field (stationary waves),but can not reflect the evolution of long waves.
    9  Multiscale structure features of a typical Meiyu frontal rainstorm process
    Zhao Yuchun Wang Yehong Cui Chunguang
    2011, 34(1):14-27.
    [Abstract](3742) [HTML](0) [PDF 15.30 M](16723)
    Abstract:
    Based on the multipletype observational data,this paper preliminarily analyses the mesoscale convective systems(MCSs) and weather background producing an extremely heavy rain along the Meiyu front in Hubei and Anhui provinces during 29—30 June 2009,and investigates the multiscale structure features of the Meiyu frontal rainstorm system.Then the mesoscale numerical model WRF with large domain and 9 km horizontal resolution is used to carry out a 3domainnested fine simulation for the heavy rain process.Morlet wavelet transformation is carried out to do spatial bandpassing filter for the model outputs,and the meso〖WTBX〗α,β〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scale systems are separated out,in such a way that the three dimensional spatial dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the mesoscale systems with different scales are studied.The results are as follows.The extremely Meiyu frontal heavy rain is directly resulted from several MCSs with different scales,which are of different features on satellite cloud images and radar echoes.On meso〖WTBX〗α,β〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scales,the Meiyu frontal heavy rain system has obvious different dynamic and thermodynamic structure features in horizontal and vertical directions.The meso〖WTBX〗α〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗β〖WTB1〗scale systems have obvious vertical circulation,while meso〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scale system has some features of inertial gravity waves and usually develops in meso〖WTBX〗α〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗β〖WTB1〗scale system.Lastly,a physic conceptual model is advanced for the typical Meiyu frontal rainstorm system.
    10  Evaluation of the four PBL schemes in WRF Model over complex topographic areas
    ZHANG Xiao-pei YIN Yan
    2013, 36(1):68-76.
    [Abstract](3623) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.28 M](6249)
    Abstract:
    In order to simulate meteorological parameters more accurately in the Planetary Boundary Layer(PBL) over complex terrain,the SRTM3 data from NASA was used in WRF model.With configuration of four PBL parameterization schemes(YSU scheme,ACM2 scheme,MYN scheme,and BL scheme) and two geographical data(SRTM3,GTOPO30),meteorological parameters in the PBL of the Mt Huang area during 24—25 April 2008 were evaluated.Temperature and dewpoint temperature of 2 m,wind speed of 10 m and water vapor distribution from simulation were contrasted to the observational data from 19 meteorological stations and 2 sounding stations in the Mt Huang area.Results show that YSU scheme was best for 2 m temperature simulation and ACM2 scheme was best for 2 m dewpoint temperature and 10 m wind speed simulation in the four PBL schemes with both geographical data;when SRTM3 data was used in WRF model,the mean RMSE of 2 m temperature simulated by the four PBL schemes were reduced by 3.79%(YSU scheme),2.48%(ACM2 scheme),3.8%(MYN scheme),and 0.87%(BL scheme), respectively;for 2 m dewpoint temperature,only the mean RMSE by MYN scheme was reduced by 0.59%,while the mean RMSE of YSU,BL and ACM2 schemes increased by 1.39%,0.49%,and 0.89%,respectively;as to 10 m wind speed,only the mean RMSE by ACM2 scheme was reduced by 2.28%,while the mean RMSE of YSU,MYN, and BL schemes increased by 0.22%,2.32%,and 2.45%,respectively;for the vertical distribution of water vapor from sounding report,all of the four PBL schemes can successfully simulate the vertical distribution tendency of water vapor,but all results turned out to be much moister;by using STRM3 data,the vertical distribution of water vapor simulated by ACM2 scheme was improved on low layer during some periods of time.
    11  Numerical simulation of the impact of land cover change on the urban heat island effect in Nanjing
    YE Li-mei JIANG Zhi-hong HUO Fei
    2014, 37(5):642-652. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20121017006
    [Abstract](3552) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.46 M](17917)
    Abstract:
    In this paper,the Weather Research and Forecast Model(WRF) is coupled with Surface-Layer Scheme,Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model and Mingle-Layer Urban Canopy Model respectively to evaluate the simulation effect of various parameterizations on the weather conditions on 1 August 2007 in Nanjing.The best urban parameterization scheme is coupled into WRF to study the impact of land cover change on the Urban Heat Island(UHI) effect in Nanjing.Results show that the Mingle-Layer Urban Canopy Model shows the best simulation effect for surface temperature and 10m wind field.Urbanization makes surface air temperature increase over the region,especially at night and thus intensifies the UHI effect.After urbanization,the wind speed in the downtown area decreases obviously while the Urban Heat Circulation occurs more apparently.There also exists the downstream effect of UHI in Nanjing.
    12  Characteristic comparison between the rapid intensification of tropical cyclones in easterly and westerly wind shear over the Northwest Pacific
    WANG Wei YU Jin-hua
    2013, 36(3):337-345.
    [Abstract](3435) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.55 M](4995)
    Abstract:
    Based on the tropical cyclone best track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1980 to 2009,we set a threshold for rapid intensification tropical cyclones (RITC) as 35 kn,which was the magnitude of intensity change of tropical cyclones in a period of 24 h with the accumulative probability of 96% over the western North Pacific.According to zonal wind shear between 200 hPa and 850 hPa,the paper divided the vertical wind shear (WS) into the westerly vertical wind shear (WWS) and easterly vertical wind shear (EWS) and compared the characteristics of rapid intensification of tropical cyclones in EWSwith those inWWS.The results show that about 70% of RITCs occur inEWS.There are most RITCs in September,whose initial intensity are between 65 and 70 kn.In largeEWS,abundant vapor comes from southwest at 850 hPa.At 500 hPa and 200 hPa,the Pacific subtropical anticyclone is strong and the ridge line is situated in north area.The temperature in outflow layer is below -79 ℃.In large WWS,the water vapor is from southeast at 850 hPa.At 500 hPa,subtropical high is split into several centers.Compared with that of the former,the divergence field of RITCs at 200 hPa is weaker.And the temperature in outflow layer is about -76 ℃.
    13  Analyses on Satellite Cloud Images and Doppler Radar Echo Features of a MCC Rainstorm Caused by Southwest Vortex
    MA Hong ZHENG Xiangbiao HU Yong ZENG Tingyu ZHENG Hong
    2010, 33(6):688-696.
    [Abstract](3359) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.96 M](6037)
    Abstract:
    利用常规观测资料、自动站资料、卫星资料和多普勒雷达资料,对2008年6月30日至7月1日发生在滇东北和四川盆地南部一次暴雨天气过程的分析发现,850hpa四川盆地南部西南涡引发的中尺度对流复合 (mesoscale convective complex,MCC) 是暴雨的直接影响系统,700hpa青藏高原东南侧西南涡引发的中尺度对流云团并入MCC后导致MCC迅速加强并向西移动。MCC生成于对流层高层急流出口区左侧强辐散区和低层强辐合区。雷达回波上“人”字形回波、平行短带回波和逆风区的出现说明MCC内部存在多个β中尺度对流系统,直接造成多个暴雨中心。MCC成熟阶段表现出中低层辐合和高层辐散的动力特征,其前沿中层以下有强气流流入,以上则有强气流流出。MCC消散阶段从低层到高层都有强西南气流进入,相应气流辐合减弱,失去中尺度组织结构。
    14  Observational research on boundary layer structure during high incidence period of winter fog in Nanjing
    LU Chunsong NIU Shengjie YUE Ping YUE Zhiguo XIANG Lei
    2011, 34(1):58-65.
    [Abstract](3289) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.38 M](6113)
    Abstract:
    An observation was carried out in the winter in 2006 at Pancheng,northern suburb of Nanjing,using tethered balloon system,automatic weather station and other instruments.The boundary layer structures on fog and fogfree days are analyzed and compared.Results show that on the fogfree days the temperature inversions are mainly singlelayer ones,sometimes with short duration doublelayer structures,while the fog mature stage inversions are free from the ground.Compared with the fogfree days,the temperature diurnal range above the average fog top on fog days is larger while the below one is smaller.The timeheight cross section of average wind speed on the fog days is similar to that on the fogfree days.In the stable boundary layer,the wind speed profiles have one or two maximum values.The average wind speed profiles on fog days are similar to those on the fogfree days.No remarkable relationship exists between the temperature and specific humidity profiles on the fogfree days.Differently,these two parameters have a good correspondence between each other in the fog body whereas they vary oppositely during the ascent and descent of the fog top.The stronger temperature inversion,lower temperature and smaller nearsurfacelayer wind speed are background for the winter fog formation in Nanjing.
    15  MONTE CARLO TEST USED IN CORRELATION AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF METEOROLOGICAL FIELDS
    Shi Neng Wei Fengying Feng Guolin Sheng Tongli
    1997, 20(3):355-359.
    [Abstract](3289) [HTML](0) [PDF 236.86 K](4401)
    Abstract:
    This article is concerned with the problem of significance test of meteorological elements and their fields and introduces a Monte Carlo simulation experiment scheme with the results of usefulness in practice.
    16  A review on multi-scale drought processes and prediction under global change
    YUAN Xing MA Feng LI Hua CHEN Sisi
    2020, 43(1):225-237. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20191105005
    [Abstract](3241) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.24 M](3438)
    Abstract:
    Drought is defined as a period of climate anomaly,which is mainly driven by natural climate variability.It has the characteristics of slow development,long duration and wide range.However,due to climate change,drought is occurring with increased frequency and changing characteristics.For example,a type of drought with rapid development,also known as flash drought,has occurred frequently in recent years.Moreover,human activities also affect the processes of drought by altering the terrestrial water cycle.Under global change,drought research has been extended from understanding climate dynamics of meteorological drought by considering ocean-land-atmosphere interaction to investigating the propagation from meteorological drought to agricultural and hydrological droughts with the influence of human activities.The latter will provide direct climate service for agricultural,water resources,forest sectors,but they also bring new challenges for understanding of drought predictability and developing drought forecasting methods,especially in the Anthropocene.In this paper,we review the advances in multi-scale drought processes and prediction,and discuss future directions.
    17  TemporalandSpatialDistributionsofLightningActivityinSouthwestChinaBasedonSatelliteObservations
    WANGYigeng1,2,LIUJie3,WANGJiejun4,MAIBoru1,CHENQian1
    2010, 33(4):489-495.
    [Abstract](3227) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.91 M](7898)
    Abstract:
    利用TRMM卫星上携带的闪电探测仪(LIS)所获取的10a闪电资料(1998—2007年)对西南地区闪电活动的时空分布特征进行了分析。结果表明:该地区闪电次数的年差异较大,最多年份是最少年份的2倍多,闪电活动季节性特征非常明显,闪电主要集中在春末仲夏发生,呈现单峰值特征,4—8月是闪电高发期(约占全年总闪电活动的8483%)。闪电活动的日变化表明,闪电峰值区集中在傍晚、午夜前后两个时段,闪电谷值区出现在09:00—12:00,夜雷暴多,这是与其他地区闪电日变化显著不同的地方。在对闪电次数进行了探测效率订正后,根据LIS注视时间,计算了闪电密度。西南地区闪电密度分布大体呈现:东部高,西部低;南部高,北部低。闪电密度较高、面积较大的高值中心位于中越交界的老山一带,非常明显的大片低发区主要位于西南西部地区。研究表明:西南地区闪电时空分布与当地的地形地势、水汽和地理环境条件等诸多因素有关。
    18  Distribution Characters and Its Control Factors of Stable Isotope in Precipitation over China
    CHEN Zhongxiao CHENG Jun GUO Pinwen LIN Zhenyi ZHANG Fuyin
    2010, 33(6):667-679.
    [Abstract](3203) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.74 M](9353)
    Abstract:
    利用IAEA\WMO\GNIP的降水稳定同位素资料,分析了中国降水稳定同位素的时空分布特征及其影响因素。结果表明,整体来看我国降水稳定同位素有明显的大陆效应和高度效应。各地大气降水线存在地域差异,内陆地区同一站点冬、夏半年也有明显差异,显示出水汽团特性的不同。不同地区降水稳定同位素(δ和过量氘)的季节变化特征明显不同,表明主要水汽来源存在季节性差异。通过对比长序列降水稳定同位素的年际变化与季风和ENSO指数的关系,发现ENSO与降水稳定同位素有显著的正相关,但不一定通过影响降水量来引起降水稳定同位素(stable isotope in precipitation, SIP)的变化。重点分析了我国降水量效应、温度效应的特点,指出沿海和西南等季风区主要受降水量的影响,北方非季风区温度效应起主要作用,交叉地带则两种效应都有影响。
    19  Simulation algorithm research of an airborne Doppler weather radar with scanning ideal model
    WEI Ming ZHANG Sijin LIU Jia SHAO Chenyuan LIU Xiaodong
    2011, 34(1):28-35.
    [Abstract](3153) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.73 M](6865)
    Abstract:
    Based on ground base radar data,the simulation algorithm of airborne radar is proposed and an ideal model of simulation scanning patterns is also established.The algorithm is quicker and precise with the geometrical projection of divided data levels.The algorithm can be used in both sector scanning and taper scanning.At ideal conditions,this paper also discusses the algorithm of the ground echo eliminating as well as the Doppler velocity dealiasing.The results show that simulated echo could be applied to the feasibility study of scanning types before the real flight observation of airborne Doppler weather radar,and helps analysis its cloud and rain echo characteristics.

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