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  • 1  The influences of large-eddy simulation on typhoon eyewall replacement
    CHEN Xiaoyu WU Liguang LI Yubin
    2019, 42(2):161-173. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20170504012
    [Abstract](1029) [HTML](0) [PDF 18.60 M](34231)
    Abstract:
    The eyewall replacement cycle plays an important role in changes regarding typhoon intensity and inner-core structure.In this study,in order to investigate the influences of large-eddy simulation(LES) on eyewall replacement,two ideal numerical experiments were conducted,of which one was coupled with LES.The study results indicate that the typhoon intensity of the LES experiment was stronger with larger inflow in the boundary layers.It took the two typhoon approximately 20-22 hours to complete the entire eyewall replacement,but the typhoon in the LES experiment had a faster enclosing of the outer eyewall.At the same time,the intensity and updraft in the outer eyewall were also greater.After the eyewall replacement,the typhoon in the LES experiment continued to intensify,and its intensity became greater than it was before the eyewall replacement.Of more importance is that the LES can more effectively simulate the downdraft within the moat region which is at the outside of the inner eyewall.In addition,the downward motion can more effectively induce the formation and development of convections near the outer eyewall regions,and is in line with the observational features found by previous studies.
    2  Asymmetric characteristics of interannual relationship between Victoria mode of North Pacific SST and ENSO
    QI Li MAO Xin ZHANG Wenjun
    2022, 45(2):280-291. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20200719017
    [Abstract](626) [HTML](1011) [PDF 8.14 M](19862)
    Abstract:
    Based on the sea surface temperature (SST) data from NOAA in USA, the asymmetric characteristics of interannual relationship between ENSO and Victoria mode (VM;EOF2 of North Pacific SST anomalies in winter (DJF)) were emphatically analyzed.Results show that the correlation between VM and ENSO is weak on the decadal scale, but strong on the interannual scale.VM has significant negative correlation with ENSO in the same year, and has strong positive correlation with ENSO in the following year.However, there is a certain asymmetry in the relationship between the positive/negative VM events and ENSO warm/cold phases on the interannual scale.The relationship between the positive VM events and the SST anomalies in the tropical central and eastern Pacific in the same winter is weak, but El Niño events often occur in the following year.In contrast, the negative VM events are usually accompanied by El Niño events in the same years, but there is no significant relationship between the negative VM events and the SST anomalies in the tropical central and eastern Pacific in the following winter and there are few ENSO events.It can be seen that the positive VM event seems to promote the occurrence and development of El Niño in the next year and can be used as one of the early prediction factors of ENSO, while the negative VM event cannot be used as the early prediction factor of ENSO.
    3  Quality assessment of hourly merged precipitation product over China
    SHEN Yan PAN Yang YU Jing-jing ZHAO Ping ZHOU Zi-jiang
    2013, 36(1):37-46.
    [Abstract](4916) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.97 M](18848)
    Abstract:
    Based on the hourly precipitation observed by automatic weather stations(AWS) in China and retrieved from CMORPH(CPC MORPHing technique) satellite data,the merged precipitation product at hourly/0.1°lat/0.1°lon temporal-spatial resolution in China is developed through the two-step merging algorithm of PDF(probability density function) and OI(optimal interpolation).In this paper,the quality of merged precipitation product is assessed from the points of temporal-spatial characteristics of error,accuracy at different precipitation rates and cumulative times,merging effect at three station network densities and monitoring capability of the heavy rainfall.Results indicate that:1)The merged precipitation product effectively uses the advantages of AWS observations and satellite product of CMORPH,so it is more reasonable both at the precipitation amount and spatial distribution;2)The regional mean bias and root-mean-square error of the merged precipitation product are decreased remarkably,and they have a little change with time;3)The relative bias of merged precipitation product is -1.675%,less than 15% and about 30% for the medium(1.0—2.5 mm/h),medium to large(1.0—8.0 mm/h) and heavy rainfall(≥8.0 mm/h),respectively,and the product quality is improved further with the cumulative time increases.The merged precipitation product can capture the precipitation process very well and have a definite advantage in the quantitatively rainfall monitoring.
    4  Numerical simulation of the impact of land cover change on the urban heat island effect in Nanjing
    YE Li-mei JIANG Zhi-hong HUO Fei
    2014, 37(5):642-652. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20121017006
    [Abstract](3553) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.46 M](17918)
    Abstract:
    In this paper,the Weather Research and Forecast Model(WRF) is coupled with Surface-Layer Scheme,Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model and Mingle-Layer Urban Canopy Model respectively to evaluate the simulation effect of various parameterizations on the weather conditions on 1 August 2007 in Nanjing.The best urban parameterization scheme is coupled into WRF to study the impact of land cover change on the Urban Heat Island(UHI) effect in Nanjing.Results show that the Mingle-Layer Urban Canopy Model shows the best simulation effect for surface temperature and 10m wind field.Urbanization makes surface air temperature increase over the region,especially at night and thus intensifies the UHI effect.After urbanization,the wind speed in the downtown area decreases obviously while the Urban Heat Circulation occurs more apparently.There also exists the downstream effect of UHI in Nanjing.
    5  Multiscale structure features of a typical Meiyu frontal rainstorm process
    Zhao Yuchun Wang Yehong Cui Chunguang
    2011, 34(1):14-27.
    [Abstract](3745) [HTML](0) [PDF 15.30 M](16726)
    Abstract:
    Based on the multipletype observational data,this paper preliminarily analyses the mesoscale convective systems(MCSs) and weather background producing an extremely heavy rain along the Meiyu front in Hubei and Anhui provinces during 29—30 June 2009,and investigates the multiscale structure features of the Meiyu frontal rainstorm system.Then the mesoscale numerical model WRF with large domain and 9 km horizontal resolution is used to carry out a 3domainnested fine simulation for the heavy rain process.Morlet wavelet transformation is carried out to do spatial bandpassing filter for the model outputs,and the meso〖WTBX〗α,β〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scale systems are separated out,in such a way that the three dimensional spatial dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the mesoscale systems with different scales are studied.The results are as follows.The extremely Meiyu frontal heavy rain is directly resulted from several MCSs with different scales,which are of different features on satellite cloud images and radar echoes.On meso〖WTBX〗α,β〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scales,the Meiyu frontal heavy rain system has obvious different dynamic and thermodynamic structure features in horizontal and vertical directions.The meso〖WTBX〗α〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗β〖WTB1〗scale systems have obvious vertical circulation,while meso〖WTBX〗γ〖WTB1〗scale system has some features of inertial gravity waves and usually develops in meso〖WTBX〗α〖WTB1〗 and 〖WTBX〗β〖WTB1〗scale system.Lastly,a physic conceptual model is advanced for the typical Meiyu frontal rainstorm system.
    6  Effects of spring soil moisture on compound events of high temperature,low humidity,and rainfall in South China
    CHEN Yue WANG Aihui
    2023, 46(3):332-344. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20230303001
    [Abstract](364) [HTML](403) [PDF 25.22 M](16275)
    Abstract:
    The summer of 2022 exhibits significant characteristics of high temperature,low humidity,and rainfall in South China.Previous studies have focused on extreme events of high temperature and low rainfall in summer,whereas attention to near-ground relative humidity,which is closely related to human comfort and crop growth,has been relatively insufficient.In this study,we define events of positive temperature anomaly,negative precipitation anomaly,and negative relative humidity anomaly exceeding one time of the interannual standard deviation between 1959 and 2022 are as compound events of summer high temperature,low humidity,and rainfall.Monthly ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data of 1959—2022 are used in this study.We study the effect of spring soil moisture on the compound events in summer by composite analysis and a dynamic adjustment approach based on constructed circulation analogs,and the physical mechanism is analyzed.The results show that:1) The hot spots of the coupling between spring soil moisture and summer climate in south China are basically consistent with the high variability of summer temperature,precipitation,and relative humidity in 2022.2) When the soil in the Yangtze River Basin and Huang-Huai area is dry in spring and the southeast area is wet,the compound events of drying and heat will occur in summer.3) The effect of spring soil moisture on summer climate variability is mainly realized by adjusting the distribution of local evapotranspiration and net radiation energy.The study of the compound extreme events of high temperature,low humidity,and rainfall is of great significance in effectively preventing all kinds of disasters and safety accidents caused by them,protecting people's lives and property,and maintaining social production order.
    7  Ground clutter identification based on the support vector machine method with Doppler weather radar data
    WEI Ming GUAN Li LIANG Xuewei QIN Nannan
    2019, 42(4):631-640. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20170815015
    [Abstract](1974) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.93 M](16108)
    Abstract:
    Imperative quality control methods for Doppler radar data,such as ground clutter elimination,range folding elimination and velocity dealiasing,should be adopted before being used for quantitative analyses,due to the serious impacts originating from certain non-meteorological factors.In this study,in order to precisely identify the ground clutter and precipitous echo,an automatic algorithm based on the Support Vector Machine(SVM) is performed,based on the observational CINRAD/SA Doppler weather radar data in the areas of Anqing and Changzhou from June to August,2013,and the results are compared with the recognition effect based on the Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs) method.Statistical learning theory(SLT) is favorable for small samples,which focuses on the statistical law and nature of small-sample learning.As a new machine learning based on SLT,the basic principle of the SVM is to possess an optimal separating hyperplane which is able to satisfy the requirement of the classification accuracy by introducing the largest classification intervals on either side of the hyperplane.In the first step,the dataset used in the experiment will be establised by empirically distinguishing the ground clutter and precipitous points at each bin.Next,several characteristic parameters,which are used to quantify the possibility affected by the ground clutter,such as reflectivity vertical variation (GDBZ),reflectivity horizontal texture (TDBZ),velocity regional average (MDVE),and spectrum regional average (MDSW),will be derived from the reflectivity,radaial velocity,spectrum width and spatial variance information of the ground clutter and precipitous echo.The statistical results of the above characteristic parameters show the following:a large portion of these parameters vary in terms of ground clutter and precipitous echo,which indicates that the seven parameters (GDBZ,TDBZ,SPIN,SIGN,MDVE,MDSW and SDVE) contribute to the identifiable recognition of the ground clutter and precipitous echo.Based on the above conclusions,seven parameters,which are regarded as the trigger (the training factor of SVM) to establish the SVM's training model,can be randomly extracted from the database.Finally,the training model is used to automatically recognize the ground clutter and precipitation using the random data from the database.The recognition effect of the SVM method will be examined by comparing the model output with the empirical identifications,and the examination of the ANNs algorithm is the same as that of the SVM method.The comparison of the recognition effect between the SVM and ANNs methods reveals the following:(1) The statistically identifiable recognition parameter for the sSVM and ANNs methods appears to be steady,despite the fact that the Doppler radar data vary in shape and position between Anqing and Changzhou;(2) An identifying threshold must be determined for the ANNs method before the ground clutter and precipitous echo are identified,which will lead to a differently identifiable accuracy with the unlike threshold;and (3) Overall,the SVM method works better than the ANNs method in terms of radar echo identification.Moreover,the identifiable recognition accuracy of the latter increases significantly with the increasing total number of training samples,while the identifiable recognition accuracy of the former performs at a highly accurate level,which remains relatively stable with the changes in the training samples.In terms of the identification accuracy of the total samples (ground clutter and precipitous echo) and identification accuracy of the ground clutter echo,the SVM method presents better results than the ANNs method.As for the precipitous echo erroneous recognition,the ANNs method performs slightly better than the SVM,but both methods control the erroneous recognition rate at a low level.
    8  Wind shear identification for airborne weather radar and its application in airport forecast
    WEI Ming ZHANG Ming-xu ZHANG Pei-chang GUO Wei ZHOU Sheng-hui
    2014, 37(2):129-137.
    [Abstract](3015) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.30 M](14820)
    Abstract:
    Wind shear in the atmosphere is a serious threat to the safety of aircraft,especially the low-level wind shear which is an important factor affecting the aircraft taking off and landing.By using the Doppler radar velocity data to calculate the one-dimension tangential,one-dimensional radial and two-dimension composite shear,accurately judging the dangerous area of wind shear could provide timely warning for flight,taking off and landing.In this study,as the wind shear automatic identification product on the principal user processor(PUP) for Doppler radar applications has the shortcomings such as weak edge recognition and larger location errors,according to Doppler radar velocity distributions and taking advantage of least square fitting method,"fitting window" suitable for airborne radar parameters are chosen,and the several cases have been identified and analyzed.For the performance in wind shear's identification,location and edge discerning,the least square method could provide better reference of wind shear and warnings than PUP's identification products.
    9  Comparative analysis of meteorological factors and sand source conditions in sand and dust weather events in northern China during the spring of 2021 and 2022
    WU Jin LI Chen ZHU Xiaowan Qiu Yulu Tang Yixi MA Xiaohui
    2023, 46(6):950-960. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20230313001
    [Abstract](326) [HTML](186) [PDF 14.14 M](12647)
    Abstract:
    Northern China experienced four sandstorms or severe sandstorms in spring 2021, contrasting with just one event in the corresponding period of 2022. Utilizing air quality and multi-source meteorological data spanning 2015 to 2022, we applied the Lamb Jenkinson classification and Mann-Whitney U test methods to analyze similarities and differences in the sand source areas' conditions and meteorological factors during the spring of 2021 and 2022. Our findings reveal that the sand and dust weather (SDW) in northern China is frequently categorized into NW-N (cyclone type) and E-NE (high-pressure type), with the NW-N type leading to higher PM10 extreme values and a broader range of high concentrations. In terms of meteorological factors, synoptic conditions favorable for SDW in spring 2022 occur more frequently, with the differences in daily PM10 concentration predominantly associated with the NW-N type when compared to spring 2021. The frequency of NW-N type events and cyclone intensity remains comparable between the two periods, along with similar dynamic uplift conditions conducive to SDW are similar. Regarding sand source area conditions, the soil temperature in Mongolia's sand source area displayed a “cold before and warm after” pattern in the pre-winter of 2021, resulting in an early peak of snowmelt and other water content. In addition, a widespread decrease in precipitation and a relatively strong cyclone in Mongolia's sand source area in March contributed to the high incidence of sand and dust in spring 2021. Conversely, during the pre-winter of 2022, the soil temperature in Mongolia's sand source area followed a “warm before and cold after” trend, leading to a delayed peak of water content and soil moisture content during the snowmelt period. These conditions, characterized by thicker and moisture soil, were less conducive to sand formation. Therefore, the disparities in Mongolian sand source area conditions represent the primary factor behind the significant differences in SDW between the two periods.
    10  Internal atmospheric processes contributing to Arctic summer rapid warming and ice melting in recent 20 years
    DING Qinghua
    2021, 44(1):39-49. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20201113007
    [Abstract](863) [HTML](694) [PDF 37.05 M](11810)
    Abstract:
    The Arctic climate,an important component of the global climate system,has moved into a new state over the past 20 years.Scientific questions and possible consequences related to these changes are now front in the midst of many important issues that the world needs to deal with in the future.These changes,including prominent atmospheric and oceanic warming and sea ice melting have been largely attributed to a combined effect of anthropogenic forcing and internal variability of the climate system.This review highlights some findings from a number of studies conducted by my research group in the past few years.The studies collectively suggest that the high latitude atmospheric circulation that is sensitive to tropical SST forcing related to the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO) plays a vital role in driving the interannual and interdecadal variability of Arctic sea ice by affecting the atmospheric temperature,moisture,clouds and radiative fluxes over sea ice.In particular,the teleconnection excited by a SST cooling over the tropical Pacific is suggested to cause an enhanced melting from 2007 to 2012.In addition,it suggests that a similar internal process may also play a role to cause strong sea ice melting in summer 2020.Furthermore,the model evaluation focusing on CMIP5 models finds that most climate models have a limitation to replicate this IPO-related teleconnection,raising awareness on an urgent need to investigate the cause of this bias in models.Thus,this review is meant to offer priorities for future Arctic research so that more efforts are targeted on critical scientific questions raised in this study.
    11  Analysis of the process and mechanisms of genesis and development for 2014-2016 mega El Niño event
    DING Yihui
    2016, 39(6):722-734. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20161028003
    [Abstract](1920) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.22 M](11716)
    Abstract:
    The present paper has mainly analysed the process and mechanisms of genesis and development of the 2014-2016 mega El Niño event.It is shown that the entire lifecycle of the event is about 2 years(from April 2014 to May 2016),with four stages identified for its evolutive process:(1)Early and continuous westerly wind bursts(December 2013 to April 2014).The continuous three westerly wind burstsnot only changed the state of the easterly trade wind prevailing tropical central and easterly in the Pacific for long period of time,but also changed the cold water state in this region for the most recent 12 years,thus leading to SST rise and warming.Until early spring 2014,the SSTA exceeded 0.5℃,marking the possible occurrence of a new El Niño event.(2)Alternative weakening period(June 2014 to August 2015).Six westerly wind bursts continued to occur,thus maintaining and enhancing the warming of the equatorial central and eastern Pacific,while at the same time overcoming two periods of SST warming decrease or barrier,so that the initial development of El Niño was not aborted,and even changed into the stage of strong El Niño.Correspondingly,in the sub layer of the equatorial central and eastern Pacific,six warm Kelvin waves were observed to propagate eastward.The heat contents of these oceanic waves not only maintained the continuous warming in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific,but also caused El Niño to change from CP to EP type.(3)Peak period of development (September 2015 to February 2016).Two stronger westerly wind bursts were observed,which corresponded to very vigorous convective activity on the equatorial central and eastern Pacific.Rapid warming occurred in the Niño3.4 region,with 3℃observed in November 2015,classified as the mega-El Niño event.(4)Accelerating weakening stage(March to May 2016).The intensity of the El Niño rapidly weakened from 2 to 0.5℃ in the Niño3.4 region,then accelerated the transition to the cold water phase.In July to August 2016,the SSTA in the Niño3.4 region already approached -0.5℃.This rapid phase shift is a manifestation of the theory of delayed oscillation.From the above results,it is concluded that the development and shift of warm and cold phases is observationally consistent with the mechanism derived from the paradigm of the current theory of recharge oscillation and/or delayed oscillation theory.This clearly demonstrates that the results of the El Niño theory effectively underpin the development of related operational prediction.
    12  An analysis of intensity and structural changes in relation to inertial stability during the development of Hurricane Bonnie(1998)
    LI Hang-yue WANG Yong-qing XIN Chen
    2015, 38(1):27-36. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20130626001
    [Abstract](2593) [HTML](0) [PDF 20.93 M](10944)
    Abstract:
    The high-resolution numerical simulations of Hurricane Bonnie(1998) are used to analyze its intensity and structure changes in relation to its associated inertial stability under the influence of intense vertical wind shear during three different stages of its life cycle.Results show that Bonnie has high asymmetry and experiences an eyewall displacement cycle during its rapid intensifying stage.During its rapid structure change stage,the development of high inertial stability is consistent with the change in hurricane inner core size.The inertially stable region,which is usually present inside the eyewall,provides resistance to radial motions,and plays an important role in reducing the influence of vertical wind shear.The inertially stable region reduces the Rossby radius of deformation,and concentrates the latent heating,which is beneficial to the enhancing of the hurricane.This is an important factor in the development of inner core region of the hurricane.
    13  Analysis of the potential and triggering characteristics of short-term heavy precipitation in Shanxi on July 13, 2018
    MA Li MIAO Aimei DONG Chunqing WANG Simin WANG Chendi
    2020, 43(4):663-672. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20190330001
    [Abstract](919) [HTML](573) [PDF 8.02 M](10148)
    Abstract:
    In this paper,using conventional observation data,NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data,FY-2G satellite hourly TBB data,radar and AWS data,the potential and triggering characteristics of short-term heavy precipitation in southeastern Shanxi Province on the night of July 13,2018 were analyzed.The results reveal that the strong southwest airflow around subtropical high provide abundant water vapor conditions for the short-term heavy precipitation process.In addition,the stratification structure of "dry and cold under warm and wet" and the temperature differential advection of "high-level cold advection and low-level warm advection" provides the energy conditions required for the development of strong convection.The formation and maintenance of ascending motion are conducive to the release and enhancement of unstable energy.The meso-β scale convergence line on the ground develops into a meso-β scale vortex,thereby stimulating the consolidation and strengthening of the mid-β scale convective cloud mass,which in turn stimulates the merging and strengthening of meso-βscale convective clouds.The meso-γscale convective monomer embedded in the meso-βscale band echo of ≥ 35 dBZ,under the guidance of the 500 hPa southwest airflow,forms a slowly moving,highly organized multi-cell linear echo,which was the direct cause of the formation of short-duration heavy rainfall.The short-term heavy precipitation is located between 5 880 gpm and 5 840 gpm on the 500 hPa map,between the 850 hPa and 700 hPa shear line,and overlaps with 850 hPa and 700 hPa wet tongue,ground trunk line and mesoscale convergence line (near the 10 km range),as well as the cold air inflow side of the convective cloud mass TBB gradient high value area and TBB ≤ -60℃.
    14  Understandings of assessment reports on climate change impacts,adaptation and vulnerability:progress from IPCC AR5 to AR6
    JIANG Tong ZHAI Jianqing LUO Yong SU Buda CHAO Qingchen WANG Yanjun WANG Guojie HUANG Jinlong XU Runhong GAO Miaoni MIAO Lijuan
    2022, 45(4):502-511. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20220529013
    [Abstract](949) [HTML](1535) [PDF 29.68 M](9780)
    Abstract:
    The second working group of the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (IPCC AR6 WGⅡ) focuses on the impact,risk,adaptation and vulnerability of climate change.The report quantitatively assesses the impact of climate change on natural and human systems with the latest data,detailed evidence and diverse methods.Compared to AR5,the following progress has been made:Firstly,The content clarifies that the impact of climate change is attributable to three categories:anthropogenic climate forcing,non-climate factor action and weather sensitivity identification,127 key risks from climate change will become widespread or irreversible,and limiting global warming to 1.5 ℃ can greatly reduce climate change loss and damage to natural and human systems,pointing to the importance of adapting to transition.Secondly,AR6 WGⅡ adopts the latest combination of SSPs and RCPS in terms of evaluation method,which is more comprehensive.Thirdly,AR6 WGⅡ has focus on risks and solutions,and on the basis of AR5 WGⅡ,it is clarified that under different future warming scenarios,the risk level of the key risks facing the five “reasons for concern (RFCs)” will be relied on lower to very high levels of global warming.Finally,AR6 WGⅡ clarifies the urgency of climate action,combining adaptation and mitigation to support sustainable development is essential for climate resilience development pathways,pointing to the importance of immediate action to address climate risks.
    15  Distribution Characters and Its Control Factors of Stable Isotope in Precipitation over China
    CHEN Zhongxiao CHENG Jun GUO Pinwen LIN Zhenyi ZHANG Fuyin
    2010, 33(6):667-679.
    [Abstract](3204) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.74 M](9355)
    Abstract:
    利用IAEA\WMO\GNIP的降水稳定同位素资料,分析了中国降水稳定同位素的时空分布特征及其影响因素。结果表明,整体来看我国降水稳定同位素有明显的大陆效应和高度效应。各地大气降水线存在地域差异,内陆地区同一站点冬、夏半年也有明显差异,显示出水汽团特性的不同。不同地区降水稳定同位素(δ和过量氘)的季节变化特征明显不同,表明主要水汽来源存在季节性差异。通过对比长序列降水稳定同位素的年际变化与季风和ENSO指数的关系,发现ENSO与降水稳定同位素有显著的正相关,但不一定通过影响降水量来引起降水稳定同位素(stable isotope in precipitation, SIP)的变化。重点分析了我国降水量效应、温度效应的特点,指出沿海和西南等季风区主要受降水量的影响,北方非季风区温度效应起主要作用,交叉地带则两种效应都有影响。
    16  Analysis of influence of monsoon gyres on tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific
    LI Xiao-ya WU Li-guang ZONG Hui-jun
    2014, 37(5):653-664. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20111230001
    [Abstract](3108) [HTML](0) [PDF 33.55 M](8914)
    Abstract:
    Studies have shown that large-scale monsoon gyre activity is closely associated with tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific.In this study,two cases of monsoon gyre activities in 2002 and 2009 were first examined.It was found that a monsoon gyre can be linked to the formation of one or more tropical cyclones,which usually occur near or to the east of the gyre center.Further analysis of the monsoon gyre activity during the period of 2000—2009 indicates that tropical cyclogenesis mainly occurs near or to the east of the gyre center,although the definition of a monsoon gyre depends on its duration and the circulation intensity.It is suggested that the tropical cyclogensis may be associated with the Rossby wave energy dispersion of monsoon gyres.
    17  Atmospheric correction model for Landsat images
    YAO Wei LI Zhijun YAO Gong WU Jinfeng JIANG Dongliang
    2011, 34(2):251-256.
    [Abstract](3066) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.67 M](8712)
    Abstract:
    A new atmospheric correction algorithm based on dark object method and the look up table developed from MODTRAN model was introduced for Landsat images in the paper.The infomation of the satellite remote sensing images was used to support the atmospheric correction.The algorithm was applied to the Landsat ETM+imagery and comparisons show that the influence on Landsat imagery caused by molecules,water vapor,ozone,and aerosol particles in the atmosphere was effectively reduced after the correction.The surface reflectivity was more precisely,which is beneficial for remote sensing information extraction and thematic interpretation.
    18  CMIP5 assessment of climate variability over Northwest Pacific
    ZHI Hai LI Kai-lin ZHOU Shun-wu
    2015, 38(2):184-194. DOI: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20140508002
    [Abstract](2712) [HTML](0) [PDF 16.29 M](8217)
    Abstract:
    The observed SST data and CMIP5 data are used to analyze climate state and interdecadal variation of sea surface temperature(SST) over Northwest Pacific(20—60°N,120°E—120°W).Results indicate that the selected 22 models can simulate the climate state perfectly.More importantly,the selected models can simulate the annual and interdecadal variations of SST over Northwest Pacific.Total standard deviation of SST simulted by the models is the largest in Kuroshio extension region.The majority of models have an ability to simulate the first EOF mode of SST.The SST over Northwest Pacific has a significant interdecadal oscillation phenomenon.SSTs simulated by the 13/22 models have obvious interdecadal oscillations.Meanwhile,the simulated deviation of SST climate state has a great effect on the periodic oscillation of SST,especially in Kuroshio extension region.
    19  Mesocyclone Features of Super cell Storms from CINRAD/SA
    FENG Jinqin TANG Dazhang WANG Xinqiang MA Chuan
    2010, 33(6):738-744.
    [Abstract](2815) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.05 M](8007)
    Abstract:
    超级单体风暴常伴随着冰雹、雷雨大风等强对流天气,最本质的特征是有一持久深厚的几千米尺度的涡旋———中气旋。利用2003-2009年福建龙岩新一代天气雷达观测到的32次超级单体风暴,分析了超级单体风暴中气旋的时空分布、结构特征以及旋转速度大小、中气旋顶和底的高度、伸长厚度以及切变值等特征量。结果表明:90%以上的超级单体中尺度气旋是与冰雹、雷雨大风、短时强降水等强对流天气相联系的。统计8次有详细灾情的雷雨大风或冰雹天气过程发现,中气旋强度不断加强,中气旋厚度加大,最强切变中心突降时将产生大风或冰雹等强对流天气

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