Mechanisms of dust source accumulation and synoptic disturbance triggering the 2023 spring sandstorm in Northern China

1.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters /Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disasters,Ministry of Education /School of Atmospheric Sciences,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology;2.Beijing Weather Forecast Center

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    From March to April in 2023, 9 dust weather processes occurred in China.The processes from 19 to 24 March and from 9 to 13 April reached the level of strong sandstorm and sandstorm respectively, bringing adverse impacts on population health, ecological envi-ronment and transportation.The anomalous Eurasian atmospheric circulations showed a zonal distribution from the late winter to early spring, the Siberian high and the East Asian trough were weak, and the area around Mongolia was controlled by the high pressure anom-aly, which resulted in the continuous warm surface air temperature and soil temperature in the dust source area (the second highest since 1980).In addition, the lower troposphere also lacked water vapor transporting to the sand source, resulting in significantly less precipita-tion in the winter and spring of 2023 (the lowest in history since 1980).The continuous warm and dry climate conditions in winter and spring resulted in a large number of dry and loose gravel in the dust source area from February to March in 2023, which provided ex-tremely favorable dust source conditions for the occurrence of sandstorms.The synoptic disturbance systems that triggered the sandstorms in March 19—24 and April 9—13 were both Mongolian cyclones.However, the two Mongolian cyclones and their configuration with the rear cold high were different, which directly caused the differences in the intensity, path and duration of the two sandstorms.From 19 to 24 March, the dust process reached the level of strong sandstorm, causing PM10 concentrations in Beijing and Harbin to exceed 2000 and 3600 μg·m?3 respectively.The sandstorm from 9 to 13 April not only affected Northeast and North China, but also caused a significant increase in PM10 concentration in cities south of the Yangtze River, such as Hangzhou and Fuzhou.Moreover, the research emphases of dust events from the aspects of climate cumulative effect and synoptic disturbance mechanism are analyzed, and the necessity and key points of conducting subseasonal-seasonal and interdecadal prediction of dust events are discussed.Furthermore, severe sandstorms in 2021 and 2023 also raise the scientific question, "Have dust events entered a new period of activity?".To answer this question, it is neces-sary to study the interdecadal mechanism and prediction of dust change, and also to predict the future change of dust event trend to a cer-tain extent.

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  • Received:May 08,2023
  • Revised:May 08,2023
  • Adopted:May 08,2023
  • Online: May 08,2023
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