触发2023年春季中国北方沙尘暴的沙源累积和天气扰动机制
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国家自然科学基金资助项目(42088101)


Mechanisms of dust source accumulation and synoptic disturbance triggering the 2023 spring sandstorm in northern China
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    摘要:

    2023年3—4月,我国共出现10次沙尘天气过程,其中3月19—24日和4月9—13日的沙尘过程分别达到强沙尘暴和沙尘暴等级,给人群健康、生态环境和交通运输带来了严重不利影响。后冬至前春的欧亚大气环流异常呈纬向带状分布,导致沙源地的地表气温以及土壤温度持续偏暖、降水整体偏少、蒸散发效应显著。疏松的沙源为春季沙尘天气提供了丰富的物质基础。触发3月19—24日和4月9—13日沙尘暴过程的天气扰动系统都是蒙古气旋,但两次蒙古气旋及其与后部冷高压的配置存在差异,这也直接造成两次沙尘暴过程在强度、路径和持续时间上的差别。此外,本文也从气候累积效应和天气扰动机制两个方面分析了沙尘事件的研究重点,并侧重讨论了开展沙尘次季节-季节以及年代际预测的必要性和关键点。

    Abstract:

    From March to April in 2023,10 dust weather processes occurred in China.The processes from 19 to 24 March and from 9 to 13 April reached the level of strong sandstorm and sandstorm respectively,bringing adverse impacts on population health,ecological environment and transportation.The anomalous Eurasian atmospheric circulations showed a zonal distribution from the late winter to early spring,the Siberian high and the East Asian trough were weak,and the area around Mongolia was controlled by the high pressure anomaly,which resulted in the continuous warm surface air temperature and soil temperature in the dust source area (the second highest since 1980).In addition,the lower troposphere also lacked water vapor transporting to the sand source,resulting in significantly less precipitation in the winter and spring of 2023 (the lowest in history since 1980).The continuous warm and dry climate conditions in winter and spring resulted in a large number of dry and loose gravel in the dust source area from February to March in 2023,which provided extremely favorable dust source conditions for the occurrence of sandstorms.The synoptic disturbance systems that triggered the sandstorms in March 19—24 and April 9—13 were both Mongolian cyclones.However,the two Mongolian cyclones and their configuration with the rear cold high were different,which directly caused the differences in the intensity,path and duration of the two sandstorms.From 19 to 24 March,the dust process reached the level of strong sandstorm,causing PM10concentrations in Beijing and Harbin to exceed 2 000 and 3 600 μg·m-3 respectively.The sandstorm from 9 to 13 April not only affected Northeast and North China,but also caused a significant increase in PM10 concentration in cities south of the Yangtze River,such as Hangzhou and Fuzhou.Moreover,the research emphases of dust events from the aspects of climate cumulative effect and synoptic disturbance mechanism are analyzed,and the necessity and key points of conducting subseasonal-seasonal and interdecadal prediction of dust events are discussed.Furthermore,severe sandstorms in 2021 and 2023 also raise the scientific question,“Have dust events entered a new period of activity?”.To answer this question,it is necessary to study the interdecadal mechanism and prediction of dust change,and also to predict the future change of dust event trend to a certain extent.

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尹志聪,霍芊伊,麻晓晴,张艺佳,马小会,王会军,2023.触发2023年春季中国北方沙尘暴的沙源累积和天气扰动机制[J].大气科学学报,46(3):321-331. YIN Zhicong, HUO Qianyi, MA Xiaoqing, ZHANG Yijia, MA Xiaohui, WANG Huijun,2023. Mechanisms of dust source accumulation and synoptic disturbance triggering the 2023 spring sandstorm in northern China[J]. Trans Atmos Sci,46(3):321-331. DOI:10.13878/j. cnki. dqkxxb.20230501007

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  • 收稿日期:2023-05-01
  • 最后修改日期:2023-05-10
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  • 在线发布日期: 2023-06-30
  • 出版日期: 2023-05-28

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