陆地生态系统固碳速率立体监测方法、进展与挑战
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①中国科学院空天信息创新研究院

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国家杰出青年科学基金(41825002)


Accounting the carbon sequestration rate of terrestrial ecosystems: methods, progress and challenges
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Aerospace Information Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    全球CO2浓度增加造成的全球变暖已成为人类亟需解决的问题,陆地生态系统在过去几十年一直扮演着重要的碳汇角色,吸收了30%左右的人类活动排放CO2。本文调研分析了陆地生态系统固碳速率空间估算方法,包括样地调查、通量监测、模型模拟、遥感估算等,梳理了各种估算方法的研究现状与进展。样地调查、通量观测等方法可以提供点尺度的固碳速率直接测量信息,但存在观测样本有限、空间代表性不足等问题。模型模拟方法可以从机理的角度描述了陆地碳、水、能量循环,模拟预测陆地生态系统固碳速率的状态和变化,然而,在模型建立过程中,抽象和简化会引入结构与假设的不确定性,以及模型驱动数据引入的不确定性等问题是碳循环模型模拟方法面临的一大挑战。卫星遥感具有全球覆盖、精细分辨率、时间序列观测等优点,结合机器学习方法,为地球大数据驱动的全球碳源汇估算提供了新的研究范式。但是,当前各种固碳速率的监测方法还没有满足高度时空异质性的陆地生态系统固碳量监测需求,未来需要整合地面观测、模型模拟和卫星遥感等多种技术手段,提供区域和全球尺度的陆地生态系统碳汇精确估算方法体系和科学数据产品。

    Abstract:

    Global warming, caused by the rapid increase of atmospheric CO2 has become an urgent problem for sustainable development of human beings. Terrestrial ecosystems have played an important carbon sink role in the past decades by absorbing about 30% of the CO2 emitted by human activities. This paper reviewed the estimation methods of carbon sequestration rate of terrestrial ecosystems, including sampling inventory, flux monitoring, model simulation, remote sensing, etc., and analyzed the progresses and challenges of the current approaches for accounting terrestrial carbon sequestration. Sampling inventory and flux observations can provide direct measurement of plot-scale carbon sequestration rate, but there are many problems, such as limited observation samples and insufficient spatial representation. Model simulation methods can describe the terrestrial carbon cycles and simulate the state and change of carbon sequestration rates in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the approximating and simplifying processes in model, together with the uncertainties introduced by model-driven data, it is very challenging to accurately modeling the carbon sequestration rate of terrestrial ecosystems. Satellite remote sensing, holding the advantages of global coverage, fine resolution, and time-series observations, combined with machine learning methods, can provide a new approach for the estimation of the carbon sequestration rate of terrestrial ecosystems. So far, various accounting methods for carbon sequestration rates have not yet met the needs of monitoring carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems due to the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In the future, it is extremely important to integrate various accounting approaches, such as ground observations, model simulations, and satellite remote sensing, to provide accurate estimation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon sinks at the regional and global scales.

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  • 收稿日期:2022-03-03
  • 最后修改日期:2022-03-11
  • 录用日期:2022-03-14
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-03-14
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