1.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.College of Resources and Environment,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.State Key Laboratory of Land Surface Processes and Resource Ecology,Beijing Normal University
北冰洋地区海浪的生成和发展会受到海冰范围变化的显著影响。本文介绍了近年来基于浮标、潜标和走航观测,以及卫星遥感和数值模拟等方法开展的不同海冰覆盖度下北冰洋海浪的研究进展,包括海冰覆盖区海浪的传播机制等。北冰洋夏季开阔海域的平均有效波高可达3 m,在风暴期间,波弗特海有效波高可达5 m。除大西洋一侧,夏季北冰洋大部分海域海浪活动在过去几十年呈增强趋势,其中楚科奇-波弗特海有效波高增长趋势约为1-3 cm/a。这一趋势主要是由海冰范围减少导致的风区增大和风暴的频率、强度增加共同导致的。基于CMIP5多模式集的预估结果显示,相比历史时期(1979-2005年),本世纪末(2081-2100年)北冰洋有效波高将以3 cm/a的速率持续增长,其中北冰洋中心地区东部海域增长最为明显。海浪活动增多会在消融期通过海浪-海冰正反馈机制促进海冰的消融。在沿岸地区,增多的海浪会加速海岸带侵蚀,促进沿岸冻土的崩解。极端海浪事件还会威胁航运安全。未来研究需基于更多的现场观测,加深对海冰范围和厚度变化影响下海浪的生成、发展、传播、衰减机制的认识,进一步提高冰区海浪模拟和预估水平。
The generation and evolution of surface waves (sea and swell) in the Arctic Ocean are controlled by the wind forcing and the sea ice extent, which is obviously different with the tropical and subtropical oceans. We introduce the recent research progresses of Arctic Ocean surface waves under different ice coverage based on the observations of buoys, moorings and ship-based measurements, as well as the studies based on satellite remote sensing and numerical simulations. The propagation mechanisms of waves in sea ice covered areas are also reviewed. The average significant wave height in the open water of the Arctic Ocean in summer can reach 3 m, and during storms, the significant wave height can reach 5 m in the Beaufort Sea. Except for the Atlantic sector, the wave activity in most area of the Arctic Ocean during summer has increased in the past few decades, and the significant wave height on the Beaufort-Chukchi Sea has an increasing trend of about 1-3 cm/a. This trend is mainly caused by the collective effect of increase in fetch due to the sea ice retreat, and frequency and intensity of storms. The projection based on the CMIP5 multi-model simulations shows that compared with the historical period (1979-2005), the significant wave height over the Arctic Ocean at the end of this century (2081-2100) will increase by 3 cm/a, of which the largest increase occurs in the eastern part of the central Arctic Ocean. Increased wave activity promotes the ablation of sea ice through the wave-ice positive feedback mechanism during the melting period. In coastal areas, increased wave activity will accelerate coastal erosion and promote the disintegration of coastal permafrost. Extreme waves can also pose a threat to shipping safety. Future research needs to be conducted based on more and extensive field observations to deepen the understanding of the generation, development, propagation, and attenuation mechanisms of waves under the influence of changes in sea ice extent and thickness, so as to improve the ability to simulate and project waves in ice areas.
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