1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所;2.中国科学院大学;3.中国科学院青藏高原研究所环境变化与地表过程重点实验室;4.三峡大学水利与环境学院;5.复旦大学大气与海洋科学系/大气科学研究院;6.Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University;7.Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg
1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences;4.College of Hydraulic and Environmental engineering, China Three Gorges University;5.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences/Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University;6.Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University;7.Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg
This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the moisture sources of precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings, focusing on the characteristics of moisture sources (regions of evaporation) for precipitation, spatiotemporal changes in the contribution of moisture sources to precipitation, and the causes of changes in moisture source associated with the recent wetting trend over the Tibetan Plateau and drying trend in Southwest China which lies on the southeastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. The existing studies show that the moisture transports from the west by the northern hemispheric middle latitude Westerlies and from the southwest by the Indian summer monsoon contributed the most to precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. The moisture transports from the west shows a decreasing trend while that from the southwest and the east shows an overall increasing trend in the past three decades. The enhanced water vapor transport from the monsoon regions and the intensified local hydrological recycling is the primary reasons behind the recent wetting trend over the Tibetan Plateau, while the reduced water vapor transport from the regions dominated by the Westerlies is the main factor that causes the drying trend on the southeastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. The challenges and future directions for understanding the variation of moisture source of precipitation over the extended Tibetan Plateau area are then discussed. Firstly, the observational evidence of the variation of moisture source is still lacking. There is a need to reduce uncertainty of the moisture source estimates through integration of model and observations. Secondly, the changes in glacier, lake, and vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau and the associated changes in evapotranspiration would affect water vapor transport and recycling. There is a need to quantify the interactions between land surface change and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings from the perspective of water vapor sources. Thirdly, the enhanced moisture supply from the monsoons and reduced moisture supply from the Westerlies could be linked to climate change as the projection of future precipitation changes under a warming world showed the same pattern as the past three decades, i.e. a wetting trend over the Tibetan Plateau and drying trend on the southeastern corner. However, further research is needed to under-stand the linkages between global change and moisture source variations over the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings.
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