1979年6月东亚和南亚上空的水汽通量
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美国国家科学基金


WATER VAPOR FLUX OVER EAST AND SOUTH ASIA DURING JUNE OF 1979
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    摘要:

    1979年随着印度季风的建立,亚洲季风区上空的水汽输送场经历了非常显著的变化。一条强水汽输送带从阿拉伯海经印度南部、孟加拉湾和南海,然后向北进入华南和日本。由于垂直积分的水汽通量(Q2)的强烈辐合而形成明显的降水。6月16~20日.孟加拉湾和南海Q2辐合突然加强。同时,在上述两地区和菲律宾,向外长波辐射(OLR)急剧下降,对流指数(Ic)迅速上升。这些变化表明,季风在印度、孟加拉湾、南海和菲律宾几乎是同时建立的。在东亚,6月5日左右,受西太平洋副高控制的强水汽输送带在日本南部建立。同时.Q2辐合加强,OLR下降,Ic上升。这些变化表明,日本雨李早在印度季风建立以前约两个星期就开始了。季风前后两个时期Q2的较差也指出有两条水汽通道。一条与南亚季风相联系;另一条则与东亚季风相联系。对Q2、OLR和Ic的分析表明,1979年东亚与南亚季风是相对独立的系统。

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    In 1979,the water vapor transport field over monsoon Asia underwent significant changes with the onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Strong water vapor transport extended from the Arabian Sea, across Southern India, the Bay of Bengal,the South ChinaSea(10°-15°N),then northward into Southern China and Japan. There was heavy rain with intense convergence of vertically integrated water vapor flux (Q2).Over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea,the Q2 convergence increased rapidly between June 16 and 20. During the same period, in the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the Philippines, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) decreased sharply and the index of convection (Ie). increased suddenly. These changes indicate that the onset date is nearly the same over India, the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea and the Philippines.Over East Asia, the strong water vapor transport, which is controlled by the West Pacific high, developed south of Japan around June 5. Concurrently, Q2 convergence intensified, OLR decreased and Ic increased. These changes imply that the rainy season in Japan begins approximately two weeks before the monsoon onset in India.The Q2 differences between the pre- and post-onset periods clearly indicate the existence of two channels of water vapor transport. One is related to the South Asia monsoon and the other to the East Asia monsoon. Analysis of Q2, OER, and Ic data indicates that in 1979, the East Asia monsoon and South Asia monsoon were relatively independent of each Other.

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