小型水体蒸发观测和控制机制的研究进展
投稿时间:2020-05-09  修订日期:2020-05-09  点此下载全文
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作者单位E-mail
刘寿东 南京信息工程大学 lsd123123@163.com 
王怡 南京信息工程大学  
肖薇 南京信息工程大学 wei.xiao@nuist.edu.cn 
赵佳玉 南京信息工程大学  
张弥 南京信息工程大学  
谢成玉 南京信息工程大学  
曹畅 南京信息工程大学  
王伟 南京信息工程大学  
赵若男 南京信息工程大学  
李旭辉 南京信息工程大学  
基金项目:平流-夹卷过程对小型水体蒸发的影响及其控制机制
中文摘要:小型水体(面积<1km2)的总面积占内陆水体面积的40.2%,其蒸发是内陆水循环中的重要过程,但是小型水体蒸发的观测和估算都存在明显较大的技术难度和知识空缺。本文梳理和综述了涡度相关法和稳定同位素质量守恒法观测和反算小型水体蒸发的研究进展,综述了内陆水体蒸发控制机制的研究进展。重点分析两种观测方法面临的困难和挑战:涡度相关法观测小型水体蒸发的技术挑战主要包括源区信号污染问题、频谱校正问题,稳定同位素方法的关键问题是动力学分馏系数的准确参数化。基于能量守恒原理,评述了不同时间尺度上蒸发的控制机制,并着重阐述了平流-夹卷过程对蒸发影响的研究进展。
中文关键词:小型水体  蒸发  涡度相关法  稳定同位素质量守恒法  平流-夹卷过程
 
A review on the studies on evaporation observation and its controlling mecha-nism over small water bodies
Abstract:Small water bodies (area< 1 km2) occupy 40.2% of the total area of inland water bodies, and its evaporation is one of the important processes in inland water cycle. But evaporation over small water bodies is usually ignored due to its small individual size in water cycle studies, or is estimated based on the similar equation for large lake evaporation. Actually, the controlling mechanism for evaporation over small water bodies should be different to large lakes. A key issue is the energy contribution of advection-entrainment process. The investigations were limited due to the lack of direct observation. There are big technical challenges and knowledge gaps in the observation and estimation on evaporation of small water bodies. The observatory studies with eddy covariance method and the estimation studies with isotopic mass balance method, and the studies on controlling mechanism on evaporation of inland water bodies were reviewed. The tech-nical challenge that eddy covariance method faces include signal pollution and spectrum correction, and the key problem for isotopic method the parameterization on kinetic fractionation factor. Further, the controlling mechanisms on evaporation at different time scales were evaluated, with emphasis on those studies on the influence of advection-entrainment process on evaporation.
keywords:small water bodies  evaporation  eddy covariance  isotopic mass balance method  advection-entrainment process
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