气溶胶对中国天气、气候和环境影响综述
投稿时间:2020-01-15  修订日期:2020-01-25  点此下载全文
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作者单位E-mail
李占清 马里兰大学 大气与海洋科学系, 马里兰州 大学园 20740 zli@atmos.umd.edu 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(91544217);国家重点研发计划资助项目(2017YFC1501702)
中文摘要:空气污染、天气和气候与大众生活息息相关,全球变化与可持续发展更是全人类面临的共同挑战。空气污染与气候变化对发展中国家带来的挑战更为显著。中国作为人口最多、发展飞速的国家,面临这两方面的挑战尤为严峻。因此,深入了解空气污染与气候变化的成因和发展机制,摸清两者相互关系对提高人们的生活质量和科学发展方针政策的制定具有指导意义。随着全球变化研究的深入,气溶胶与温室气体作为影响地球气候的两个最重要的人类排放物,在气候变化科学中起着至关重要的作用,气溶胶研究也成为地球科学发展最快的一个分支学科。中国天气、气候的变化特征,如高温增多、寒潮变少、风速减小、大气变稳、小雨减少、大雨增多、雷暴增强、季风减弱等,与空气污染都存在不同程度的联系。本文主要综述气溶胶对我国天气、气候的影响以及与气象因素相关的空气污染问题,侧重于气溶胶与极端天气事件之间包括影响程度和影响机理在内的错综复杂的关系。研究方法涉及星、地、空综合观测资料分析和模式模拟等。观测资料包括长时间历史观测资料、短时段强化观测实验资料、全球卫星资料等。
中文关键词:气溶胶  空气污染  天气气候  极端天气事件
 
Impact of aerosols on the weather,climate and environment of China: an overview
Abstract:Air pollution,weather and climate are closely related to the life of local residents.Global change and sustainable development are common challenges currently faced by all of humankind,yet the issues of air pollution and climate change are especially significant in developing countries.China,as a developing country with the world's largest population and fastest development,is faced with particularly severe challenges in these two regards.Therefore,a thorough understanding of the causes and development mechanisms of air pollution and climate change,as well as a clear understanding of their interrelationship,are of guiding significance to the formulation of sustainable development policies.Along with the development of global change research,aerosols and greenhouse gases,namely the two most important human emissions affecting the Earth's climate,play an important role in climate change science.As a result,aerosol research has become one of the fastest growing branches of geoscience research.The characteristics of China's weather and climate change,such as the increase in high temperature,decrease of cold waves,decrease of wind speed,stabilization of the atmosphere,decrease of light rain,increase of heavy rain,increase of thunderstorms and weakening of monsoons are all related to air pollution by varying degrees.This paper mainly reviews the influence of aerosols on weather and climate in China and the air pollution issues related to meteorological factors,focusing on the complex relationship between aerosols and extreme weather events,including the degree and mechanism of impact.The research method involves an analysis of the comprehensive observation data of satellite,earth and space,along with model simulation.The observation data include long-term historical observation data,short-term enhanced observation experiment data,and global satellite data.
keywords:aerosol  air pollution  weather-climate  extreme weather events
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