洱海盆地水面与地面气象要素变化特征的比较
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徐安伦1,赵晓红1,付志嘉1,刘劲松1,孙绩华  
基金项目:大理市政协科技项目;云南省气象局科技项目(YB201006);公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY(QX)201006054)
中文摘要:依据大理国家气候观象台在洱海湖中建立的自动观测系统以及大理国家基本气象站观测资料,对2008至2009年的风、温、湿、压、降水要素的日变化和季节变化特征进行了对比分析。结果表明:受局地复杂地形和洱海的影响,洱海盆地近地层常年存在湖陆风、山谷风、峡谷风三者叠加效应引起的局地环流。水面盛行风向白天以东南风为主,夜间以东南风和西西南风为主,而地面白天以东东南风为主,夜间以静风和西西北风为主。年平均风速小,水面为29 m/s,地面为24 m/s。水面年平均气温为168 ℃,而地面为160 ℃。两观测点气温、相对湿度、气压均表现出明显的日变化特征,水面气温、相对湿度出现极大值和极小值的时间均比地面晚。全年降水多集中在5—10月。
中文关键词:洱海盆地  气象要素  日变化  季节变化
 
Comparison of meteorological elements over water and land surfaces in the Erhai lake
Abstract:Based on the meteorological data from 2008 to 2009,which were collected from an automatic observation system over water surface in Erhai and an automatic weather station in Dali National Climate Observatory,the diurnal and seasonal variations of wind speed,wind direction,air temperature,relative humidity,air pressure and precipitation were analyzed and compared.Results show that there is a local circulation in surface layer over the Erhai lake basin,which is caused by the lake land breeze,the mountain valley wind and the gorge wind affected by the local complex terrain and the Erhai lake.The prevailing winds are southeast in the day,and southeast and west southwest at night over the water surface.The prevailing winds are east southeast in the day,and static wind and west northwest at night over the land surface.The annual mean wind speed is 29 m/s over the water surface and 24 m/s over the land surface.The annual mean air temperature is 168 ℃ over the water surface and 160 ℃ over the land surface.Air temperature,relative humidity and air pressure show significant diurnal variations over the water and land surfaces.The occurrence time of maximum and minimum of air temperature and relative humidity over the water surface is later than that over the land surface.The annual rainfall mainly takes place from May to October.
keywords:Erhai lake basin  meteorological elements  diurnal variation  seasonal variation
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