CloudSat卫星及其在天气和云观测分析中的应用
投稿时间:2008-09-08  修订日期:2008-09-22  点此下载全文
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作者单位
周毓荃 国家气象中心, 北京, 100081 
赵姝慧 南京信息工程大学, 应用气象学院, 江苏南京, 210044 
基金项目:国家“十一五”科技支撑计划资助项目(2006BAC12B07)
中文摘要:介绍了2006年4月28日成功发射的第1颗以对云层特性进行全球主动遥感测量CloudSat卫星的观测仪器、工作参数、运行方式、数据产品及"A-Train"卫星群等基本概况。CloudSat卫星主要有效载荷是94GHz(3mm波)云雷达,它可以"切开"云层,获得许多有关云的最新气象数据,主要数据产品包括了云的宏观物理参量和微观物理参量。介绍了CloudSat卫星已获得的典型天气和云的初期观测结果:从首次观测的云三维图片,可以清楚地看到南极洲上空风暴云的垂直剖面结构特征;从首张获得降雪云的垂直剖面图像可以得到降雪云层的发展状态以及结构特点;使用Cloud-Sat统计数据可分析全球水凝物的分布特征。将TRMM卫星上的测雨雷达与CloudSat卫星上的云雷达联合观测研究,可以获得从薄云到浓厚云及降水的精细垂直结构特征。通过下载的CloudSat观测资料,对我国典型台风和层状云系等两类不同天气条件下云的宏微观结构特征等进行了初步分析,可以看到台风眼区附近云系的垂直结构随台风发展不同阶段的演变;从层状云系的垂直剖面可以清楚地发现云层的内部分层结构及不同相态的垂直分布特征等。
中文关键词:CloudSat卫星  云剖面雷达  云结构
 
CloudSat Satellite and Its Application in Weather and Cloud Observation
Abstract:As the first global active survey satellite of cloud properties,the CloudSat satellite was successfulll launched in April 28,2006.Firstly,this paper introduced the equipment,operating parameters,operation mode,data products and the "A-Train" satellite constellation.The CloudSat satellite supports a W-band(94 GHz/3 mm) cloud profile radar.It can cut the clouds and get so much new meteorological data,including the macro-and micro-physical parameters.Secondly,the paper concluded the initial results of typical weather and cloud observed by the CloudSat satellite.The first 3-D image of the storm clouds over the Antarctic was gotten;the state of the snowfall cloud development and structure was gotten from the first image of the snowfall cloud;the global hydrometeor distribution was analyzed by the CloudSat statistical data.A comparison has been made between the precipitation radar on the TRMM satellite and the cloud radar on the CloudSat satellite,and the fine vertical structure of different kinds of clouds can be received.Based on the CloudSat satellite data downloaded,the macro-and micro-structures of cloud were preliminarily analyzed in the different weather conditions,and the evolution and vertical structure of the clouds near a typhoon eye can be seen.The hierarchical structure of cloud and the vertical distribution of different phase cloud also can be seen by analysing the vertical profile of the stratiform clouds.In short,the CloudSat satellite can provide us a strong platform to research the cloud structure.
keywords:CloudSat satellite  cloud profiling radar  cloud structure
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